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Organizational Behaviour “Organizational Behaviour (OB) is the study and application of knowledge about how people, individuals, and groups act in organizations. ”(www. nwlink. com) “Organizational behavior is the systematic actions and attitudes, which people demonstrate within organizations, research. ” (S. Robbins, P. ) “Organisational Behaviour is a misnomer. It is not the study how organizations behave, but rather the study of individual behaviour setting. ” (http://www. referenceforbusiness. om/ ) In general terms, it is organization studies and their territories which examine how people as individuals, groups, teams and generally, as employees, behave and work in organizations, how to motivate them externally and stimulate their internal motivation. The narrower sense, the organizational behaviour (OB) is the social science which deals with all aspects of human behaviour in organizations: individual, group and organizational levels of the process. Its purpose is to build better relationships by achieving human, organizational and social objectives.

Also to understand, explain, predict and manage individuals and group behaviour within organizations. OB systematically examines the individual organization member and their group behaviour that affects the workers’ performance in the organization, is looking for ways to ensure the effective functioning of the organization. OB organizations is interested in communication – information, collaboration and employee incentives. OB integrates with various sciences: management, social psychology, sociology, education, as well as anthropology, history, economics, ergonomics, and many other fields of knowledge.

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History of OB: (www. wikipedia. com) | | ? The Greek philosopher Plato wrote about the importance of leadership; ? Aristotle delivered the topic of persuasive communication; ? In 1776, Adam Smith introduced us with a new form of organizational structure based on the division of labour; ? In 19th century German sociologist Max Weber wrote about rational organizations and initiated discussion of charismatic leadership; ? Frederick Winslow Taylor introduced the systematic use of goal setting and rewards to motivate employees (Taylorism); ?

In early 1980s, cultural explanations of organizations and change became an important part of study; ? In 1931 Elton Mayo advised managers to deal with emotional needs of employees at work; ? Mary Parker Follett told managers to motivate employees on their job performance, to “pull” rather than to “push” strategy; ? Douglas McGregor proposed two theories, which are very opposite of each other, about human nature based on his experience as a management consultant: ? Theory X” – pessimistic and negative; and according to McGregor it is how managers traditionally perceive their workers; ? “Theory Y” – takes a more modern and positive approach; made-up to help managers replace that theory/assumption. The Importance of OB (used class notes) If the manager of the company treats his subordinates well, he is more likely to get higher productivity at lower cost; If workers are satisfied with the way they are treated in their jobs, they are more productive at work and less likely to quit, vice versa;

People who are mistreated in work place have more mental and physical illnesses than those who are treated with kindness, dignity, and respect; Organizations that treat employees well are much more profitable and vice versa; People who are trained to work together tend to be happier and more productive. Gert Hofstede’s research has shown that the various (management, staff promotion, conflict and negotiation, etc. ) theories developed in Western culture, is not justified for other cultures and vice versa.

Experience may give impetus to new hypotheses, and research findings, new theories, applied in a particular culture or a certain era. Leadership Leadership is an important area for managers, as leaders play a crucial role in group and organization effectiveness. A number of scientific works examines the various theories of leadership and leaders, and tries to create the most important characteristic of leadership. However, until now it is still not clear which theory of leadership is most effective in a given situation, which leadership traits are most important in accordance with one or another theory of leadership.

Ralph M. Stogdill, reviewed and researched leadership theories and noted that there are almost as many definitions of leadership as how many people tried to describe it. One of the definitions of the term leadership emphasize that leadership is a group of activities required to complete a task, targeting and impact of their leadership process. 1. Leadership involves others – staff and followers. Their willingness and desire to obey the instructions of the group leader helps the members to establish and define leadership status and conditions of leadership. . Leadership implies a difference in power distribution between the leader and the group members. Group members must retain some power: they can form and shape the group. However, the leader usually has more powers. The more power sources the leader has at his disposal the more spectacular he can be in his leadership potential. However, a lot of organizations have a belief that same level leaders should have the same formal powers as each other in abilities used for settling, punishment, expert or attractive power. 3.

Ability to use different forms of power, in various ways by leveraging its followers’ behavior. 4. Leadership relates to values. Moral leadership required to take into account  the values of followers and provide sufficient knowledge of the alternatives that they themselves would be able to make an informed choice when it comes the time to decide to follow the leader or not. Organization is usually formed by the member of the group who has most influence towards activities of the other members. Ability to control others and to influence them is one of the most important aspects of human relations.

The leader encourages participation, gives instructions, examines the different inputs from other members of the group and makes decisions. The three elements common to all definitions of leadership: power, group and goal. Leadership is shown as a process by which a leader influences others; by stimulating them to behave in a certain way. Group members are subordinate to the leader, but the leader also feels responsibility towards its members. And, finally, the leader influences the group actions, with the aim to achieve the objectives which group faces.

It is important to note that leadership is closely linked to management, but is not the same concept. In order to emphasize the difference between leadership theorist W. Bennis said that in most organizations there is too much managing and too little leading. Indeed, a person can be an effective leader: a good planner and an excellent administrator, but he may lack the necessary leader skills. Others may be effective leaders: they can trigger other people’s enthusiasm and dedication, but they may lack the managerial skills, to direct a person’s excited energy in the best direction.

Leadership is an internal process of a particular group, depending on the group member’s initiative. Leading shares the group activities with other groups and society as a whole, which is part of this group, for business purposes. Leadership is based on informal interpersonal affection, acceptance, solidarity, opposition and other relationships. Also – on the official subject of dependence relations between superiors and subordinates, between the supervisor and higher levels of management. Management and leadership differences between those two groups do not exclude the effects of the similarities and close relationships.

Many different research groups show that management function is best carried out by those who are in high standing, loved as good people, respected as professionals, according to the structure of informal relations. The most effective group is managed by cases where management and leadership roles are intertwined, when the formal manager is also the informal leader. Of course, it is not necessary that the manager of these groups would be a universal leader. LEADERS FUNCTIONS Some management theorists are seeking to identify certain characteristics of spectacular leadership behavior.

In other words, they are trying to figure out what effective leaders are doing, rather than what they are. These theorists are interested in spectacular leader’s actions: how they distribute the tasks when they interact with their subordinates, when trying to motivate their followers, when they perform their tasks, and so on. Unlike personal characteristics, certain types of behavior can be learned; so it follows that the people trained in leadership secrets, should be able to manage effectively.

Researchers, who have examined the functions of leadership, came to the conclusion that in order to work effectively in group, the group must have a person who carries out two major functions: 1. Association with the task and solving problems; 2. Sociable (to settle disputes or to ensure that people would always feel appreciable in their groups). A person, who is able to successfully carry out these two activities, should be working effectively. Although the practice leader may have the skills, temperament, or time to perform only one of them, however that does not mean that the group will be damned.

Test results show that in the most spectacular groups popular form of leadership – where one person (usually the manager or the formal leader) does the task functions, and another member of the group – social functions. Key leadership functions: • Group’s operation purpose and methods exaltation; • Individual members of the group coordination achieving common goals; • Member of group information about an operation, its results, and others. ; • Members of the group control, incentives and penalties; • Arbitration functions in the event of a disagreement between members of the group; Group representation over the other groups, higher managers and others; • Takes care of the active team work; • Specifies the team’s goals, mobilize them; • Knows the strengths and weaknesses of the members; • Defines ranges of work and communication sides; • Government is implement but not aggressively. So, to summarize the main functions of leaders within a group or organization: • Enhance development of common goals • Motivate to effectively implement the ideas TYPES OF LEADERS: Leadership is different depending on a leader’s personal qualities, leadership motives (what makes a leader for these positions), group and ublic understanding of the objectives and characteristics (large or small, what are the objectives of the group, what the characteristics of members to the leader or is contrary to it) and other conditions. According to the leader intercourse with members of the organization’s character, K. Lewin has identified three types of leader: 1. Autocratic type of leader. He heads an organization bringing their own personality and views. He has no consultation with other members of their organization on performance targets, the methods, and other incentives.

Dismisses opinions he dislikes, objections hurts him. In the organization there is no indication of initiative as “the leader knows everything. ” 2. Type of democratic leader. He always consults with employees. Orders, prohibitions, incentives and penalties are determined by discussion. This type of leader does not command, he offers. His speech is in a friendly tone; he hears the opinions of others and uses them in organization. 3. Liberal type of leader. He is recognized in organization, but through his activity does not show any initiative.

Gives instructions to followers, gives request rather than orders, as he is ashamed of his leader position. Requests and penalties almost do not exist. Leadership theories assigned to certain types of leaders in terms of how he has become one: • The traditional leader – a leader who takes up leadership skills from birth. The leading role in this case is in accordance with tradition of hereditary. • Charismatic leader – a leader who brings together supporters and takes them into leadership for his exceptional personal qualities. Situational leader – a leader whose impact only occurs under certain situation and lasts only for a limited time. • Functional leader – the leader which is needed for a particular organization function only. • Appointed leader – a leader or manager, whose impact is directly related to his formal position. CHARACTERISTICS OF LEADERS: The first coherent psychologists and other scientists attempt to understand leadership was an attempt to identify the personal characteristics of leaders. This approach argues that leaders have some innate personal qualities.

The opinion that leaders are born rather than become is more and more popular among amateurs, but not as popular among professional researchers. When looking for a measurable feature in leadership, the researchers relied on two approaches: 1. Comparing features of those who became leaders and those who did not; 2. Compared spectacular and inefficient characteristics of leaders. Many studies of leadership traits fell into the first category, but failed to find any features which clearly separate the followers from the leaders. It is true that leaders are more educated, more extrovert and more confident than non-leaders.

And while millions of people share these features, many of them will never be a leader. And many well-known leaders in whole did not have these features. It is also quite clear that people who take up leadership position are more confident and aware of their value, these attributes should be considered as “leadership skill outcomes”, not causes. Maybe someday personality assessment will be sufficiently accurate and can be distinguished leadership traits, but this is not to say that the leaders be distinguished in any exceptional features.

Another, much newer and less widespread approach in an attempt to identify specific attributes of leadership is relating the efforts of inefficient leaders and leaders in spectacular performances. However, this theoretical deviation failed to identify successful leadership characteristics. One of the studies shows that thinking, initiative and self-esteem is strongly associated with high management level and work efficiency. However, this study also revealed that the most important factor associated with the management and performance level, is the manger’s ability to supervise.

Most other studies in this area shows that effective leadership does not depend on any specific combination of features, but rather on how the leadership characteristics agree with the situation requirements. Here are the 7 most characteristic features of the target leader. The specialists identified the following characteristics thorough management of successful company’s leadership qualities survey. The results showed that successful leaders exhibited the following characteristics: • The ability to make people around feel important; Clear vision of the future; • Treat staff members as required; • To admit errors; • Criticize subordinates so that other employees would not hear it; • Participate in company’s life; • Convert competition into the game. Some descriptions of leaders: Leaders are determined. Emergency decisions have to be taken quickly and with radical action. Leaders rely on chest crises. Not one of the leader raises a number of crises that to guarantee yourself a chance to control the situation directly, autocratic style. The leaders are trustworthy.

They are predictable, and their followers believe that they behave exactly as promised to do. Leaders are strong personalities. Strong leaders have early attitude assumed by the public and authority for the current situation and other people. Such a direction is almost inseparable from domination, although to be a leader is not just to dominate. Dominance is aggressive; it limits, demobilizes and crushes. Meanwhile, leaders raise others. They free up time, give focus and inspiration. Leaders have the courage. They set as an example for others.

They are personally at risk. Leaders inspire energy, positive and negative, from each other. A leader has clear vision. He provides clear purpose and direction, which others can focus on. Leaders publish the simple idea of “higher purpose”. The leaders are consistent. A simple idea attracts energy from other living areas; all activities must be directed towards the big goal. Such leader’s dedication to purpose is impregnable, it often becomes an obsession. Leaders should be communication specialists. Leaders have charisma. Charismatic leaders have a magical attraction.

Leaders mobilize their supporters. Charismatic leaders inspire their supporters by moving their deepest psychological layers. Leaders find themselves in the right place at the right time. Leaders are winners. Behavioural Leadership Theory: Behavioural approach focuses on leadership roles and styles. Studies show that both the functions relating to the task and group maintenance functions must be performed by one or more members of the group, if the aim is for me team would work effectively. Leadership functions are expressed in two different styles: The leaders, which are characterized by the task-oriented leadership style, meticulously supervising workers, to be sure that the tasks are carried out satisfactorily. The work done by them is more important than the employees’ professional development and personal satisfaction. • Leaders with a strong focus on staff style, take more care to motivate staff, rather than control. They are seeking friendship, mutual respect and trust-based relationships with employees, who are often allowed to participate in making decisions. Usually leaders use some elements from both styles.

So, to summarize the points made about a leaders personal features manifestation, they are following a particular leadership style (focusing on the task or the staff), it could be said that the manager, in order to be an effective leader, should pay more attention by communicating with employees. He should be thoughtful to them, encourage, respect and trust them. To become an effective leader, you must be able to make people surrounding you feel important. If a leader’s objectives and decisions are associated with him, other employees quickly lose their enthusiasm.

It is more important to highlight the employee’s efforts and contributions to the organization, and, to demonstrate your power non-aggressively rather than looking at the merits of oneself. Personality PERSONAL VIEWS AND RATIO OF CONDUCT In today’s labour market organizations have a large selection of employees. In order to recruit new employees, the head of organizations have a varied choice. Recruitment is carried out in several stages. First of all, you need to consider both professional and performance terms, when choosing the right person.

In other words, in order to apply for the position the person should meet several criteria: ability to perform certain functions, appearance and personal character traits. THE CONCEPT OF PERSONALITY Personality is a fairly complex issue that is dealt with not only by sociologists, psychologists, but also by employers and labor market experts. Personal characteristics are becoming increasingly important in today’s job market. Employers tend to employ people who are not only able to carry out their tasks, but are creative, proactive with new ideas, not afraid to express their opinion in critical situations.

These properties are often identified as strong personality traits. PERSONALITY TESTS Many organizations today have a clear recruitment, training and motivation strategy. Selecting the staff by carrying out research. The personality test would be one of the most common. It is done by dealing with sociability (the ability to communicate). For example, extroverts are best suited to work in sales, negativity – they are often in bad mood, feel less satisfaction with work, prone to various disagreements with both colleagues and with employers. There are multiple types of personality traits: ¦ activist; pragmatist; ¦ theorist (logical, disciplined, objective); ¦ repeater (risk averse). Research shows that learning style is the most important factor affecting the productivity and success of development. Research, must take into account several aspects: ¦ Self-concept; ¦ Personality traits; ¦ Attitude; ¦ Abilities; ¦ Emotions. PERSONAL PERCEPTION People are very different. For example, one student is studying for a week, while some study on the last night before the exam, but gets a better grade. These differences are related both to the environment in which people live, and with their personalities.

Personality characteristics of the employee employer must be evaluated by the employer when working in the team. Human ability depends on many things – nature, the living environment and creativity. The capability of work also depends on the person’s attitude on himself. Personality self-concept is how a person sees himself within an organization. Personality self-concept – is a process which is determined by several factors: • Own self-concept; • Other members of the organization’s point of view; • Ways and means to introduce ourselves into an organization, impact on others.

Personality perception is inseparable from thinking. This is related with: human knowledge, beliefs and opinions. Personality perception also depends on the culture. Perception of personality consists of several parts: • Belief/Faith in ourselves and dignity; • Willingness to succeed; • Personal observations; • Belief in your value. It can be divided into two groups: 1. A self-estimating; 2. Under-estimating yourself. High self-esteem is not always a good trait. It is associated with selfishness, aggressiveness and propensity to crime. This feature is a welcome, if person has any ideas, is creative and educated.

Faith is also dependent on culture. Belief in value may be acquired. This should be taken into consideration not only by employees themselves but also their employers as well. They may use several measures: showing interest in a worker’s personal problems, attitudes, tendencies; offering a variety of tasks related to the responsibility and the challenges of human abilities; to trust the workers (show confidence in them), to highlight each successful step. THE DIVERSITY OF PERSONALITIES Personality is defined as a person certain physical and mental characteristics corpus.

These characteristics determine how a person behaves, look’s, what they think and feel. Personality perceptions associated with self-concept. Humans perceive their selves as individuals with strong physical and social aspects. The main five personality types are: • Extroverts – communicating; • Malleable – they can be trusted, good-natured, co-operating with good heart; • Aware – responsible, goal-oriented; • Emotionally stable – relaxed, and carefree, safe; • Open to experience – intellectual, creative, and curious. Personality type is an important inquiry into the human capacity and possible occupation.

For people with regards to their personal character traits and inclinations, it is advisable to choose their most character corresponding activity. CLASSIFICATION OF PERSONALITIES: Personalities can be classified not only according to the above features. The following is the classification of several key features: • Typologies in relation to temperament characteristics; • Typologies describing thinking / perception patterns; • Typologies associated with personal motivation and direction; • Typologies in relation to personal orientation and social behavior.

Typologies in relation to temperament characteristics: 1. Classic Temperament Typology (Hippocrates I. Kant, I. Pavlov): • Melancholic; • Choleric; • Sanguine; • Phlegmatic. 2. W Sheldon typologies (extended distribution of the human temperament types on body composition, but also stressed the importance of facial features): • cerebrotonic (closed, tense, fast reaction); • viscerotonic (sociable, relaxed, slow reactions); • somatotonic (energetic, determined, aggressive). 3. C Jung’s psychological types: • Extrovert: intellectual, emotional, impulsive, audacious, sensory; Introvert: conscious, emotional, calm, sensory. Typologies, which describe thinking and perception models: 1. I. Pavlov’s typology by the dominant brain hemisphere: • Thinker; • Artist; • Mixed type. 2. Sensory typology – the prevailing system of senses: • Visual (visual system); • Phonics (auditory system); • Decay (tactile / sensory system of movement); • Logic (predominantly logical thinking). 3. E. Berne the typology of the inner “I” position: • Father • Adult • Children 4. G. Le Bon typology of thinking “hats”: “White Hat” – an interest in evidence; “Yellow Hat” – positive thinking; Black hat” – negative thinking; “Red Hat” – emotions influence by thinking; “Blue Hat” – linking and integrating the various own and other people’s minds thinking; “The Green Hat” – creative thinking; PERSONALITY IN TEAMS The diversity and classification of personality’s example is personalities in team. Possible personality’s roles in the team • A natural leader, or chairman • Operating person • Ideas person • Liaison person • Organizer • Inspector • Judge • Team worke A natural leader or chairman: ? Takes care of the active work of the team, review team goals ?

Defines the scope of work ? Extrovert, quiet, reliable ? Commanding, but not despotic ? Advantage – the ability to attract and unite the people. Operating person: ? Carries activities and their results ? Extrovert, impulsive and impatient ? Confident, however, easily is derived from the balance ? Often arrogant, even annoying ? Can cause problems to a team, but does help to move matters forward Idea man: ? Takes care of the most important issues and principle matters ? Gives an original proposals, however, may ignore the details and cause errors An introvert ? An achiever ? Criticizes the ideas of others and gets angry when his ideas are not be accepted ? Monitor to avoid confrontation when creating innovations Liaison man: ? Does not offer original ideas, but encourages innovations ? A good improviser, but may spend time for insignificant or extraneous matters ? Extrovert, sociable, likes company, likes to lead ? Has lack of diligence ? He easily gets bored, becomes demoralized and ineffective Organizer: ? Makes solutions and strategies into specific tasks ? Likes to draw up schedules, systems and schemes He needs a precise plan ? Can fluctuate in rapidly changing, equivocal situations ? Supervisory and quiet ? Active and systematic ? Might be of negative mood ? Is unprofitable with other people’s ideas Verifier: ? Forcing everybody to follow terms of correspondence ? He seeks to examine every detail ? He might be fascinated by details and forget the purpose ? His biggest advantage – the ability to observe that is planned ? Introvert, full of anxiety, full of snoopy thoughts and impatient ? Helps the team to understand the need of rush and to take the details into account Judge: The most objective and the least involved in teamwork ? Can make an unbiased objective analysis ? He likes to take the time to think ? Introvert; quiet and reliable but not very enthusiastic ? Fair and open to changes, but often with a negative pre-treatment and insensitive ? May be tactless and contemptuous, it may have negative effect to the atmosphere in the group Team worker: ? Supports strong sides of the team. Takes care of unity and improves the general mood ? His contribution is not always visible, but when the threats arise, his loyalty and support is invaluable Extrovert, quiet, gentle and hesitant, leans on the ideas of others ATTITUDE AND BEHAVIOUR Employers are not only perceptive of human behaviour, but also the approach to life, problems, economical and social changes in society and other issues. It is believed that the approach to these problems may be associated with a person’s ability to carry out one or another function. The approach may vary and depend on age. Older people’s attitudes are more stable. This relates to several aspects: ? Better personal self-knowledge; ? Cumulative information; ? A clear and strong viewpoint requirement.

Human behaviour is affected by many different factors. One of the key factors the influence human behaviour is the response from the surroundings of the subject/person. An example of this would be: • Positive surroundings generally can make a person’s behaviour positive. • Negative surroundings generally make everything negative. Stress World practice shows that the most effective way of saving employee’s health is harmful work factors control. In practice, assessing psychosocial factors at work is quite hard, because they depend on the subjective employee’s objective environment.

It is difficult to define the psychosocial factors, so often records only the chemical, physical, and physical factors. Mental stress at work can be caused by a number of factors. For example, monotonous work can be easily adjusted. Others, for example, problematic patterns of human relationships, are difficult to adjust. Stress at work can be caused by psychosocial factors such as work organization and management, for example, the work carried out by high demands and low job control, intimidation and violence at work. Physical factors such as noise and temperature can also be a cause of work-related stress.

Working constantly we always interact with different people: calm, sulky, angry, and so on. This creates tension that can occur on several levels – emotional, physical, behavioural response and cognitive processes. It is important to emphasize that stress can act as stimulant. It usually happens for only a short time. Some tension has requirements, even a small stress, is a normal phenomenon in everyday life. Long-term stress is not only negative but can be a cause of many illnesses. Stress at work is the second most common health issue in the European Union. WHAT IS STRESS IN WORK/ORGANIZATION?

Work-related stress arises when the task of work is over the employee’s ability to cope with it. Stress is not a disease, but if it is experienced over a long period of time can cause mental and physical health problems. An employee under pressure might be encouraged to work better and to give satisfaction when the goals are ambitious. But when the conditions and the pressure are too high, they can cause stress. This is detrimental to both, workers and organizations. JOB FACTORS WHICH CAN CAUSE THE STRESS: A typical stressful situations can be divided into: time stress – a lack of ime to complete the tasks; responsibility stress – when the decision depends on many things, when people are forced to take risks, and so on. Social and psychological stress – resulting from a variety of communicational environments, physical stress – comprises adverse physical conditions, internal contradiction stress – the result of an internal psychological conflict. With the analysis in detail, it can be mentioned that, there is often the case that mental stress and the factors causing it, describe two concepts: excessive workload and lack of workload.

Not only working overtime, but sometimes performing the simple task, can be stressful. According to opposition pairs, “too much – too little”, “too hard – too easy”, stress can be described quantitatively and qualitatively. Work carried out may be too much with lack of exercise. Additional psychological effect can cause harmful work environmental factors. Particularly common in the workplace is the noise. Noise stand in the way when you need to concentrate and can it isolate you from other people. Air pollution also affects the psychic stress. Early symptoms of mental stress may lead to changes in employment and behavior.

Poor lighting might enhance mental stress, drafts, limited working space and other conditions. Organization and execution of work also influence the psychic stress. Hand crafts, mechanical and automated production, create different stressors, and assessments of mental stress. Employees depend on working hours. For treatment of irregular work and overtime rises a number of problems, such as, shift workers ordinary problems – sleep disturbances and difficulties in family life. Psychological points of view are very important factors as well as psychological autonomy and ability to work to move freely.

An autonomic worker is a worker who is free to make decisions and adjust the pace in workplace. Lack of autonomy is a particularly high stress factor. In some cases, pay system can lead to mental stress, for example working sector, where accidents are frequent and wages are paid only for work performed. Work organization affects employee’s relations at work. Ability to consult, feedback, and clear job responsibilities, ensure good relations between employees and reduce psychological tension. A huge responsibility at work is a strong stressor, especially the responsibility for other people.

Responsible professional work, which requires decision making, usually seen as an attractive activity, although such work is full of tension. Mental symptoms are often caused by a monotonous job. For example, such as job, that requires someone to repeat a simple task continuously. Stressors can also be a variety of social factors. IS STRESS AT WORK A BIG PROBLEM? Stress at work causes more than a quarter of all work-related health issues. 1999 statistics show that European Union spend at least 20 billion Euros when dealing with stress issues. Stress at work can lead to depression, anxiety, nervousness, fatigue, and heart disease.

It also has a major impact on productivity, creativity and competitiveness. Stress at work can affect any company department employee, regardless of the size of the company. [pic] Conclusion: Organizational behaviour studies have become more important today than in previous years. Organizational behaviour was a topic that was not discussed until an employee’s behaviour changed, productivity changed, or sales decreased. In today’s business world, managers are paying more attention to how employees react to situations rather than if they respond. Manager should know his employees pretty well and try to treat them nicely.

By studying organisational behaviour managers can pay more attention on how to handle different situations of their employees, so that they can successfully take a company towards success. Also, if a manager knows about his or her employees they will eventually lead to a better more stable company. Leadership, motivation, stress, personality, perception, teamwork and other topics include in OB. It is really important for managers to know a lot about all these topics if they want to keep their organization profitable and successful. Bibliography: Contents Organizational Behaviour1

History of OB:1 The Importance of OB2 Leadership3 LEADERS FUNCTIONS5 TYPES OF LEADERS:6 CHARACTERISTICS OF LEADERS:7 Behavioural Leadership Theory:9 Personality11 PERSONAL VIEWS AND RATIO OF CONDUCT11 PERSONAL PERCEPTION12 THE DIVERSITY OF PERSONALITIES13 Typologies in relation to temperament characteristics:14 Typologies, which describe thinking and perception models:14 A natural leader or chairman:16 Operating person:16 Idea man:16 Organizer:17 Judge:17 Team worker:18 Stress19 JOB FACTORS WHICH CAN CAUSE THE STRESS:20 Conclusion:22 Bibliography:23 [pic]

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